Sunday, May 04, 2008

DIALECTICAL CONTRADICTIONS

December 31, 2001 Philosophy - dialectical contradictions,
ABSOLUTE- is independent, complete in itself, unconditioned and immutable. Matter in motion is absolute, eternal and inexhaustible. What is absolute in one sense is relative in another. RELATIVE, -describes the phenomenon in its relations and connections with other things and its dependence on them. Relative is part of a whole and it contains part of the absolute.
ABSTRACT- the part of a whole. A stage in development of the concrete., isolated from its connections and history. CONCRETE, - is a many-sided complex whole. The universe of sensually perceived phenomena. It is the start and end of an investigation.
ADDITIVE- the whole is equal to the sum of its parts. NON-ADDITIVE, -the whole is more than the sum of its parts, or the whole is less than the sum of its parts.
ANALYSIS- the process of mental or factual breaking down of the whole into its parts and the reconstitution of the whole from the parts, using abstraction, generalization, classification.
SYNTHESIS- unites isolated parts, properties and relations into a single whole combining what they have in common with how they differ.
ANTAGONISTIC- irreconcilable material interests of social groups or forces, caused by exploitation, becoming more acute until one class is abolished.. NON-ANTAGONISTIC- unity of the basic interests of all classes, although contradictions remain: new vs old, advanced vs back ward, revolutionary vs conservative
BASIS- the totality of economic relations of production at a given level of productive forces. SUPERSTRUCTURE spiritual assumptions, relations and institutions as shown in the political, legal, moral, religious, esthetic and philosophical spheres, all of which rest on the base.
COLLECTIVE- unity of individuals doing a common task, engaging in joint action and mutual assistance, with constant contact, under an organization. Man as a social being. INDIVIDUAL -can have all around development and freedom in the collective , but only if members are sincere, competent and impartial, respecting different opinions.
CRITICISM- method of discovering and correcting errors and shortcomings SELF-CRITICISM, - reveals and resolves the non-antagonistic contradictions through emulation and example.
DETERMINISM- Doctrine of the objective and universal cause and origin in all phenomena. Not identified with necessity nor fatalism. INDETERMINISM- free will, voluntarism and empiricism.
DISCRETENESS- in nature, the degree of differentiation of separate stable elements of different systems, in qualitatively defined structures. CONTINUITY- separate, discrete elements in the infinity of their relations through the gradualness of change leading to a smooth transition from one state to another.
ECONOMICS- relations between people in the process of production, exchange, distribution and consumption of material wealth. Determine all other social relations. POLITICS- the fundamental expression of class interests established to maintain or abolish a particular economic system. At times may be relatively independent of economics.
ESOTERIC- a theory meant only for initiates, understandable only to experts. Internal connection of phenomena. EXOTERIC- popular, clear even to lay persons external connection of phenomena.
ESSENCE- the sum total of latent ties, relations and internal laws determining the main features and trends in a material system. APPEARANCE- individual phenomena, properties or processes expressing outward aspects of reality thereby manifesting some of their essence.
ESTHETIC- man’s purposeful creative activity aimed at transforming nature and society by means of considering the beautiful ugly, sublime, base, dramatic, tragic comic and heroic. ETHICS- the study of morality as originating in historically developing modes of production, according to the progress made by the spiritual and material progress of the society.
ESTHETICS- the requirements of beauty and expediency most favorable to maintaining health and good spirits and high production at the workplace and in daily life. TECHNOLOGY- the development of technology makes possible new forms of art and exerts influence on the most ancient ones. Also plays a role in disseminating art to the population.
EVOLUTION- gradual quantitative and qualitative changes in being and consciousness, in a state of transition from one to the other, leading to something new. REVOLUTION- radical qualitative leaps in the transformation of society as a subsequent condition of evolutionary changes.
EXTERNAL- the superficial aspect of the object perceived by the senses or the reality outside the object. INTERNAL- essential aspect of the object, which cannot be immediately perceived and is known through its external manifestations
FORMAL-concept used to refer to content and form, rules and methods and logic which study a structure or system. CONCEPTUAL- provides an organic link with the historically shaped sum total of models and abstractions related to the subject, with universal reality expressed through philosophy.
FREEDOM- freedom is not free will, it cannot exist independent of external causes, although it is also untrue that humans have no control over external circumstances. NECESSITY- is related to freedom. It is objective and primary, while man’s will & consciousness is secondary and derivative. The more natural and societal laws are learned, the freer man is.
GOOD- what a society or class considers moral and worthy of imitation. Socially conditioned features common to representatives of a group or class, bearing an objective character. EVIL- what a society or class considers immoral and should be destroyed. These ideas are also socially conditioned and are not simply a matter of opinion.
HELIOCENTRISM- the earth revolves on its axis as one of many planets orbiting around the sun, which is only one of many. GEOCENTRISM- the earth is immobile, is the center of the universe, and the stars revolve around it.
HISTORICAL- the structural and functional process and transition of concrete conditions. The origin and formation of a given object (the process of development) LOGICAL- the relationship, laws, connection and interaction of the aspects of a thing which exist in its developed state (the result)separate elements in the developed whole.
IDENTITY- the equality of a thing with itself, or the equality of several objects, although since all matter undergoes constant change, their equality is not absolute, but relative. DIFFERENCE- a thing originates from something different, remains for the time being, then turns into something different again. Internally and externally, the old and the new coexist..
INDUCTIVE- transition from single facts to general propositions, enumeration, empirical evidence, scientific data to reach a limited conclusion for a class. A feature in a class may indicate that all elements of that class probably possess it. Method of disclosing essential connections.
DEDUCTIVE- method of inference and research. Conclusion inferred from earlier logical premises. From the general to the particular
INDIVIDUAL- is enslaved by commodity and money relations, dehumanized intellectually, bureaucratically and at leisure. In some cases, the individual serves the interests of society.
SOCIETY- forms and develops the individual in different degrees of antagonisms, depending on the class of the individual. In some cases, society serves the interests of the individual.
INFINITE- the world in space, non-exclusiveness of material systems, the world in time, the uncreatability and indestructibility of matter, its inexhaustability and variety. FINITE- every object limited in space and time. It is inexhaustible in its structure and matter, and merely changes from one form to another.
INTERPRETATION- the assignment of meaning to initial propositions through which they acquire logical and factual truth and analytical and synthetical propositions. MODEL- by replacing all constants by variables of corresponding types, one obtains a class of propositions, any set of which is called a model.
ISOMORPHISM- mutually correspondent single element and operation between the structures of separate objects and viceversa. eg., a geometrical figure and its math formula. HOMEOMORPHISM- incomplete reflection of original structure, such as a map and terrain, image and object, theory and object, information and transformation, sound and recording.
MACROCOSM- objective reality, the world where man lives, planets, crystals, terrestrial bodies, large molecules, etc. discernible structure subject to classical mechanics. MICROCOSM- closely linked but qualitatively different, atoms, nuclei, elementary particles, etc. not directly observable, expressed as quantum mechanics in physics, chemistry, biology.
MATERIAL INCENTIVES- payment and bonuses for work done, representing a totality of social phenomena (economic, moral, ideological etc.) improving skills and raising productivity. MORAL INCENTIVES- recognition, honors, awarding certificates, etc, work without remuneration where personal interest merges with societal interest.
MATERIALISM- belief in the existence of the external world as primary and knowable. Consciousness is a product of matter. IDEALISM- the spiritual is primary. First there was an idea, then the world was created. Consciousness, which is individual, is isolated from nature and society.
MENTAL LABOR- managers, physicians, artists, intellectuals, etc. acting purposefully after making conscious plans. PHYSICAL LABOR- under the division of labor, results in classes of workers and peasants, which classes can only be eradicated when mental and manual labor combine.
NECESSITY-phenomena that are the realization and development of their essence, occur necessarily when they have reached maturity, although they will have developed through chance. CHANCE- solitary and unique phenomena., under the influence of other phenomena which may or may not occur, even though all phenomena are caused by something
NEGATION- a condition for a qualitative change in circumstances and things. A new proposition is inferred from a given. If it is true, then the other is false, it is negated. AFFIRMATION- recognition of the truth or viability of a phenomenon. that which is known, or can be known, be made more precise or is irrefutable. Tested in practice.
OBJECTIVE- conditions which are independent of people and determine the direction and boundaries of their activity. eg., nature, production, material political spiritual development. SUBJECTIVE- activities of people, classes, parties, states and individuals, their consciousness, will, ability to act, etc. can play a decisive role if objective conditions are ripe.
OPTIMISM- the belief in a better social future, the triumph of good over evil and justice over injustice.Some feel the world can be improved through the individual, through enlightenment.
PESSIMISM- events go inevitably from bad to worse, can irrationally justify evil, misfortune and calamities. Classes that have outlived their time tend to be pessimistic.
ORGANIC- a way of understanding and reproducing complex objects. regarded as incomplete, only possible by historically ascending from the abstract to the concrete. MECHANICAL- erroneously and ahistorically reducing natural movement to mechanics , man to machine, etc. regarded as complete ( a closed system).
PART- the relation between a combination of objects or elements and their connections that give new properties untraceable in the objects themselves when taken in isolation. WHOLE- cognition starts with perception of the whole, goes through analysis, is broken down into parts, and is recreated-due to its interaction, cannot be reduced to a mere sum of its parts.
POSSIBILITY- expresses the tendency inherent in phenomena to develop in the presence of required conditions, and the absence of others, to turn into reality. REALITY- anything objective that exists as a result of possibility, and complies with the laws of development.
PRIMARY- motion, impenetrability, solidity, cohesion of particles, shape, volume, etc., SECONDARY- color, smell, taste and sound. external properties are realized only when they come into interaction with other things. eg., salt dissolves in water.
PROGRESS- progressive development of society in an ascending line, its flourishing, determined by the individual, by the degree of productive forces and of social freedom. RETROGRESSION- reversion to the old outlived forms, stagnation and decay, curtailing freedom, as in fascism. cannot be universal because new elements inevitably emerge
QUALITY- things constantly come into being, change and are destroyed. Inseparable, definite qualities make those things stable, differentiate them, make the world diverse. QUANTITY- magnitude, number, volume, speed, degree of development. The differences between similar parts are quantitative. Transition to quality after reaching development limit.
REASON- aspect of scientific knowledge, moral and artistic thinking, where notions are transformed into knowledge and values INTELLECT- abstract notions that are made stable, act as yardsticks for empirical material and for constructing results.
SPONTANEITY- social activity not in accordance with economic and social laws, and which are beyond man’s control, manifested by opportunism, revisionism, voluntarism and subjectivism. CONSCIOUSNESS- activity following laws of social development purposefully toward the achievement of a set of goals, manifested by working class leadership and mass consciousness.
SUBJECT- active individual or group endowed with consciousness and will. The subject transforms the object through practice, and thereby transforms him/herself. OBJECT- that on which the subject’s activity is directed, but with limits to the subject’s freedom of action, which has to conform to certain laws.
SUBSTANCE- In physics, an aggregate of mass at rest (atoms, molecules, etc.) At the subatomic level, the distinction between substance and field becomes relative. FIELD- matter characterized by continuity with zero rest mass (electromagnetic and gravitational fields). Explains interaction (changing the state of one body into another).
SYNTHETIC- All propositions to ascertain truth are either synthetic or analytic. Synthetic truth cannot be established by rules, but requires empirical data. Truth is based on objective facts. ANALYTIC- truth can established by the rules of a system, without empirical data. Analytic truth is more theoretical and logical.
TACTICS-Realizing that they are not strategy, taking into account the changing ways and means of the correlation of objective and subjective forces and forms of struggle, of immediate tasks, of defeats and victories, the ebb and flow, (quick changes in offense, politics, retreat, defense, gathering of forces, siege, assault), the phases of developmenet, the historical and national specifics, what is needed in an action, learning new legal and illegal forms as well as learning from the experience of others, selecting the time and place, maintaining flexibility, mobilizing alliances, refusing wait,or to jump stages, to trail behind, STRATEGY-Maintaining grounding in constant contact with the leading role of the masses (without falling to their level, but raising them), the total movement, the final transformational objective, adapting to new circumstances without becoming lost, maintaining firmness in flexibility, elaborating the correct line, putting it in practice and mobilizing the forces for it.
THEORY- the result of historically determined social, spiritual, production which forms and achieves the purposes of activity, giving a picture of regularities and ties with reality. PRACTICE- the activity that sustains the objective process of material production, and the transforming social activity which brings about changes in the world.The criterion of truth.
THESIS- establishes its new existence from something that existed before. . It has internal and external connections in motion which propel it toward change in relation to its opposite. ANTITHESIS- the extreme degree of dissimilarity in which the old and the new negate each other. Although there is some internal connection, there is no external one.
TIME- irreversible sequence in motion of the existence of matter which replaces itself. Matter, motion, time and space are inseparable. SPACE- space and time change according to the accumulation of substances and the gravitational field to which they give rise.
UNITY-all things are material, objective reality, various forms of matter in motion, manifesting their properties and interrelationships. Everything is made of the same things. DIVERSITY- from elementary particles to metagalaxies. In every finite phenomenon are elements of the infinite.
UNITY- elements that are in indissoluble unity, mutually exclusive, and interpenetrate each other. Relative and temporary, making development possible, where dialectics, logic and knowledge coincide. CONFLICT OF OPPOSITES- the solution of contradictions carries the investigation forward and evolves new concepts and their synthesis. No stage is finite, leads to endless multiformity.
UTOPIA- an imaginary society which embodies an ideal , a metaphor containing direct and indirect criticism of the existing system-regards science as facilitating solutions. ANTI-UTOPIA- expresses the crisis of hope in the future, declares struggle senseless, social evil indestructible, science is alien to culture and a means of enslaving man
scientific study- humanistic studies-
pure science-
analysis, thesis ,antithesis, synthesis, generalization, abstraction, induction, deduction applied science-





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