Saturday, June 03, 2006

THE HISTORY OF THE JEWS

HISTORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE
1780 BC- This period refers to the time of the writing of the Book of Genesis.
Terah takes his people out of Mari (Ur, Sumer, Babylonia) to Canaan (Palestine). The Hapiru are the later Hebrews.
1700 - Abraham, son of Terah, settles in Hebron (Canaan, Palestine). Abraham was the father of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Lot was the son of Haran. Nahor was the son of Terah.
Jacob takes Hebrews from Canaan to Egypt.
1230- Hebrews are led out of Egyptian slavery under Moses back to Canaan. They invade Canaan (Israel) under Joshua who makes the walls of Jericho fall miraculously.
Time of the Torah.
1100 - Phillistines (Palestinians) invade Canaan.
925 - Solomon and David create Iraelite power.
Samuel, Saul, Jonathan, David, Solomon.
Queen of Sheba. Slavery.
842 - Jezebel tries to erect a cult to Baal in Samaria. Elijah and Elisha banish Baal and return Jehovah to power.
750 - Amos says Israelites will suffer for their unrighteousness.
721 - Assyrians wipe out Israel. Mass deportation of Israelis.
687 - Manasseh, King of Judah, successor to Hezekiah.
642 - Manasseh dies as a puppet of the Assyrians.
621 - King Josiah launches reform at Jerusalem to worship one single God, Yahweh.
620 - Josiah Jehoiakim, Zedekiah.
597 - Judahites deported to Babylon as slaves.
587-586 - Vanquished Jews deported to Babylon. Nebuchadrezzar takes Jerusalem.
538 - Jews allowed back in Jerusalem after exile in Babylon.
Mene mene tekkel upharsin.
407 - Ezra, Haggai, Zecharai, Malachi. End of Old Testament.
Hellenistic Judaism.
165 - Jewish guerrillas beat Syrian overlords, resist attempts to turn Jerusalem into Greek colony. Hasmonean (Maccabean) Dynasty.
142 - The Jews liberate Jerusalem and make it their capital.
63 - Judah becomes puppet state of the Romans under Pompey, leaving Hyrcanus in charge.
37 - The Romans drive the Parthians out of Jerusalem. Herod becomes king.
10 - Jews are divided into different sects. Their only link is a belief in the Messiah. The Pharisees believe in the Last Judgment, The Essenes believe in monastic contemplation, the Sadducees are a priestly caste and the Zealots are militant nationalists.
4 - Herod dies. Mary gives birth to Jesus.
27 AD - John the Baptist denounces Herod Antipas for marryingHerodias incestously. John is Mary's cousin.
29 - Jesus wins widespread support.
30 - Salome, stepdaughter of Herod Antipas has John's headon a platter for criticizing her mother, Herodias.
30 - Pontius Pilatos washes his hands of the responsibility of trying Jesus.
30 - Jesus is crucified in Golgotha.
41 - Racial violence between the Greeks and the Jews in Alexandria.
64 - Christians are persecuted for the alleged burning of Rome.
Peter is crucified.
Paul of Tarsus is executed.
70 - The Jews rise up against the Romans.
76 - The Jewish revolt against the Romans is crushed. Jerusalem lies in ruins (Masada).
132 - Simon Bar Kchba and Eleazar lead revolt against Rome and take possession of Judeah.
135 - Hadrian expels Jews from Jerusalem, initiates the Diaspora.
Age of Tannaim. Rabbinic Judaism. Johana Ben Zakal replaces sacrifices and pilgrimage with the study of scripture.
Simeon Ben Gamaliel.
165 - Judah the Prince. Mishna. Talmud.
215 - Two Talmuds are in existence, the Palestinian (Roman-Jerusalem), and
the Babylonian-Persian.
269 - Palestinian Jews emigrate to Babylonia. Abba Arika. Samuel Bar Abba.
269 - Jews emigrate to Iran.
279 - Editing of Talmud (lamed). Collection of the Pentateuch,the five books of Moses, and Deuteronomy. The material is known as the Mishna, which is divided into two parts,
Halachac (laws) and Agada (stories).
510 - Competition between Jews and Christians in Middle East lays the groundwork for monotheistic Islam.
580 - Babylonian Talmud.
602 - Azhkenazim move from (Roman) Italy to France and Rhineland.
694 - The Visigoths in Toledo declare the enslavement of Spanish Jews.
760 - Under Yehudai the Babylonian Talmud becomes supreme.
840 - Anan Ben David challenges rabbis with Karaitism, says God acted dishonestly. Neoplatonic influence. Scorn of rabbinic superstition. Rise of wealthy Jewish families
in North Africa and Moslem Spain.
900 - Babylonian rabbis in disarray.
911 - David Ben Zakkai appoints Sa'adia Ben Joseph Alfayummi to head Academy of Sura. Foundation of Judeo-Arabic culture in Spain. Jews in Egypt and Tunisia.
1000 - Azhkenazim from Italy and Palestine move into France and Germany. Hebrew, religious and mystical. Sefaradim from Babylonia develop in Andalucia, Arabic,
secular and scientific.
Golden Age of Hebrew literature: Hisdai Ibn Shaprut, Ibn Nagrela, Ibn Ezra, Ibn Megash, Ibn al Balia, Judah Ibn Hayyuj, Jonah Ibn Jana, Judah Ibn Balam, Moses Ibn Gikatilia, Solomon Ibn Ganirol, Abraham Ibn Daud, Judah Halevi, Moises Maimonides.
1027 - After much discussion and competition, Babylonian Talmud and Hebrew classics become standard texts.
1130 - End of Sefardic tradition. Almohad Berber Muslims wipe out the Almoravids. Jews emigrate to northern Spain, Africa and Egypt.
1148 - German Jewish mystics (Hasidim). Solomon Ben Isaac of Troyes.
1202 - Death of Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe Ben Maimon) or, (Abu Imran al-Kufuni).
1215 - Pope Innocent III attacks Jews and heresy.
1248 - Moslem Spain falls with City of Sevilla.
1265 New religion: the Kabbala is developed in Provence. Zohar by Moises de Leon.
1290 - Jews banished from England by King Edward. He boosts the Royal coffers by selling their property.
1391 - Spanish mobs set Jewish ghettos ablaze. They are blamed for the bubonic plague.
1394 - Charles VI issues expulsion of Jews from France.
1440 - Splits between Ashkanazim and Sefaradim. Jewish Aristotelianism, averroist rationalism, Maimonidean contemplation, Marranism.
1488 - All Jews ordered out of Spain. Ladinos preserve Babylonian rather than Palestinian traditions.
1492 - Jews settle in France, Holland, England, Italy, the Balkans, Turkey, Palestina and North Africa.
Jews take to the Ottoman Empire professional, administrative, commercial, artistic skills, science, poetry, medicine and military arts. From Turkey they settle in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece.
1495 - Jews expelled from Lithuania.
1498 - Jews expelled from Portugal.
1516 - Ghetto is established in Venice.
1532 - Jacob Berab establishes rabbi community inPalestine. Zefat, Isaac Luria, Hayyim Vital.
David Reubenia and Solomon Molkho burned at the stake in Italy.
1548 - Hebrew history written by Samuel Ibn Verga.
1570 - Safed in Galilee becomes center of Jewish mysticism.
Influx of Sefaradim create a thriving industry.
1589 - Amsterdam is refuge for Sefaradim after Treaty of Utrecht.
Protestant nations do not permit the Inquisition.
1616 - Blood libel in Frankfurt.
1648 - Massacre of Polish Jews.
1656 - Spinoza, son of Marranos, expelled by Jews. Combines Judaism with teachings of Galileo and Descartes. Does not reconcile science with the Bible.
1659 - Spinoza identifies God with Nature.
1665 - Messianic hysteria. The end of the world is declared. Shabettai Tzevi later converts to Islam. Darkest period of Rabbinical Judaism.
1670 - Spinoza develops social contract.
1677 - Spinoza dies.
1722 - Shabetaian Jacob Frank (Messiah) later converts toChristianity.
1727 - Haskala:- Ashkenazim enlightenment. Jews agitate for integration and an end to ghettoization.
1750 - Development of Hassidim by Israel Baal Shen Tov. Charismatic, non-Messianic emotional.
1763 - First major center of Jewish culture opens in Newport,Rhode Island.
1782 - Mendelssohn publishes "Jerusalem". Urges Jews to become Westernized without sacrificing Judaism by using Universal Reason. Berlin Haskala. Western Jewish schools established in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
1786 - Mendelssohn, "The German Socrates", dies.
1791 - The French Revolution and The Rights of Man improve the lives of Jews in France.
1799 - Jewish reform of religion.
1806 - Creation of the Grand Sanhedrin, marking the French character of the Empire's Jews.
1809 - Israel Jacobson builds Protestant-type service in Seesen, Germany.
1818 - Reformism temple in Hamburg. Leopold Zunz and Moses Mosher founds the Society for Jewish Culture and Learning.
1824 - Reformist temple in Charleston, S.C.
1839 - Massive Jewish emigration to U.S. strengthens Reform movement.
1840 - Blood libel in Damascus.
Russian Haskala - Isaac Beier Levinsohn, Josef Perl, Isaac Erter. Anti-clericalists romanticize life beyond the Pale.
1845 - Parliament permits Jews to stand for elections in England.
1853 - Geschichte der Juden is published.
1858 - De Rothschild admitted to Parliament.
1860 - Russian Haskala - enters positivist phase, calling for social reform. Gordon.Lillienblum. Tarnodol. Rabinovich.Levanda. Devoted to Patriotism, Emancipation and Modernism.
1880 - Almost all synagogues in the U.S. have become Reform.
Talmud is considered literature, not legislation.
1881 - Pogroms in Russia put an end to Haskala and dreams of Russification.
1882 - Blood libel involving Tiszaeslar affair.
Wagner exhalted as genius.
Jews flee Russian pogroms.
1891 - Thousands of Jews are evicted from Moscow and forced into ghettos.
1894 - Toldot Yisrael is published.
1896 - Herzel advocates formation of a Jewish State.
1897 - Dreyfuss affair.
World Zionist Congress pushes for a Jewish homeland.
1899 - Dreyfuss pardoned.
1900 - "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" is published.
1903 - Scores of Jews are massacred in the Balkans.
1905 - Czarist troops kill 6,000 strikers in Odessa.
The crew of the Potƫmkin surrender to the Rumanians.
The governor of Sakhalin Island surrenders to the Japanese.
The Duma is established.
The worst Russian famine is reported.
A semi-Constitutional Monarchy is established.
1,000 Jews are killed in Odessa.
Revolutionaries occupy Kiev.
Tsarist Government crushes uprising in Moscow.
1911 - Blood libel in Russia.
1917 - Balfour unveils plans for Jewish homeland in Palestine.
1925 - Weltgeschichte des Judischen Volkes is published.
1928 - National Congress of Christians and Jews is founded against Henry Ford's Dearbon Independent.
1929 - Britain keeps order to stem Arab hostility to Jewish encroachment.
1933 - Germany is swept by a wave of tyranny, terror and oppression.
1936 - Resurgence of Hebrew in traditional liturgy.
1939 - Jews entering Palestine face British curbs.
1942 - The Nazis begin deportation of Jews to Auschwitz.
The Wannsee conference agrees on the implementation of the Death Camps.
1948 - The State of Israel is created.
1951 - King Abdullah of Jordan is shot dead in Jerusalem.
1961 - Eichmann is sentenced to death.
1967 - Israel is victorious in six day war against the Arabs.
1969 - Golda Meir is PM of Israel.
1973 - Egypt launches Yom Kippur war.
1974 - Rabin is PM.
1977 - Begin becomes PM.
1978 - Sadat and Begin sign Camp David agreement.
1983 - Shamir is PM.
1984 - Peres is PM

Population of Jews (1980)
US 6,000,000
USSR 3,000,000
Israel 2,500,000
Central & South America 800,000
England 500,000
France 500.000

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